Saturday, May 23, 2020

The Pros And Cons Of The Use Of Cell Phones While Driving

It is known that the use of cell phones, specifically handheld use such as texting, while driving decreases driver awareness and the overall safety of roads. In response to this knowledge, some states have passed laws that have outlawed the use of handheld devices, and while there should be laws that definitively outlaw handheld usage, is there enough empirical evidence to outlaw hands free usage of cell phones? In other words, does hands free usage of cell phones, via bluetooth, speakerphone, etc., distract drivers enough to the point where states should legally ban the total use cell phones while driving? The following will introduce arguments for both sides of this topic, one for hands free cell phone usage and the other against cell†¦show more content†¦Additionally, the cell phone group rated themselves worse in driving performance before and after the simulator. This indicates that driver performance is impaired by cell phone use and drivers generally know their drivin g is worse when using cell phones. Other evidence against hands free cell phone use while driving is simply that talking on hands free devices is just as bad as talking on handheld devices in relation to driver performance (Ishigami Klein, 2009). To determine this, Ishigami and Klein (2007) reviewed the results of several separate studies that investigated the impacts of handheld and hands free cell phone usage on the detection reaction times of drivers. These studies were: Abdel-Aty (2003), Burns et al. (2002), Consiglio et al. (2003), Haigney et al. (2000), McEvoy et al. (2005), Patten et al. (2004), Redelmeier and Tibshirani (1997), Strayer and Johnson (2001), Strayer, Drews, and Crouch (2006), and Tà ¶rnros and Boiling (2005, 2006). Consiglio et al. studied the effects of auditory distractions, such as cell phone, by measuring the reaction time of participants using a non-driving, braking task where participants released an accelerator and applied the brakes if a red light we re shown. The control group performed the task without auditory stimulation. Strayer and Johnson (2001) examined the effects of phone conversation onShow MoreRelatedCell Phones for Young People Useful or Distracting?1031 Words   |  5 Pages There has always been controversy as to whether texting and cell phone use can cause young people to be less likely to be able to concentrate and focus. As young citizens we have the right to be able to own a cell phone and not be criticized using it for educational reasons. Phones give you access to the internet, teach responsibility, and is an emergency access to contact parents; however it can cause cheating in class room areas by sharing answers, it can distract people from doing work in classRead MoreThe Pros and Cons of Owning a Cell Phone790 Words   |  4 PagesThe pros and cons of owning a cell phone Broc Barchard COMM/112 April-08-2013 Kerry Moquett The pros and cons of owning a cell phone Annotated Bibliography: Are cell phones controlling us? I generally like this source because it goes into great detail about the evolution of cell phones. Starting back in 1984 the first cell phone was basically a brick, and now the cell phones used today are way smaller. Also this source talks about devices becomingRead MorePros And Cons Of Teenage Cell Phone Use1023 Words   |  5 PagesDecember 2014 Pros and Cons of Teenage Cell Phone Use Cell phones have become a major part of people’s lives. They are probably one of the biggest inventions when it comes to communication because of the many functions that they are capable of performing. The use of cell phones has become especially popular among teens as it is a major part of teenage social life. One source states that â€Å"22 percent of children ages 6 to 9 own a cell phone; 60 percent of tweens ages 10 to 14 own a phone, and 84 percentRead MoreMarxism in Brave New World Essay995 Words   |  4 PagesCumberbatch Government The Pros * You can be in touch with your children, and know their whereabouts. (The Pew study noted that 48 percent of parents use the phone to monitor their childs location.) * Your kids can reach you in the event of an emergency, and vice versa. * If in danger, your children can reach the authorities or a medical provider. * Phones can be silenced during class or study periods, and active only in appropriate places. * Cell phones create a convenience thatRead MoreMobile Phones Has Impacted Health, Education, And Interaction1683 Words   |  7 Pagesbillions and billions of people, where smart phones are ever increasing, a lot of people in this world use cell phones as a means of communication. Cell phones have become a big part of everyone’s lives today. Smart phones today have been around for over a century now. These phones can really come in handy. Smart phones can be used for a variety of things like, communicating to one another, sending pictures, and even downloading applications on the phones that could be beneficial to you. On the otherRead MoreCell Phones : Pro Vs. Con1025 Words   |  5 PagesCell Phones: Pro vs. Con Cell phones have come a long way since April 3, 1973 when the first phone was invented. The first call in history was made that day by Motorola employee Martin Cooper, as he stood next to a 900 MHz base station in New York City and phoned to the headquarters of Bell Labs in New Jersey (The Cellphone Turns 40: Remembering Martin Cooper’s Historic Call). Since that day, cell phones have evolved to become what is now a all-in-one master piece. A current cell phone removes theRead More Should the Age for Getting a License be Higher Than 16? Essay1347 Words   |  6 Pagesmore careless with their driving over the years. It may be the teens lack of experience or that they are just too young to have the responsibility of driving a car. As the years have gone by, teens have become more distracted while driving. With their cell phones buzzing uncontrollably, the music blaring, and their friends yelling in the back seat; teens are having a hard time focusing on the other drivers aroun d them. Teenagers have a very hard time â€Å"multitasking† while driving, posing more of a hazardRead MoreCell Phones : Good And Bad891 Words   |  4 PagesCell phones could be both good and bad. Some people say that cell phones are dangerous. While, other people would argue that cell phones are a great invention. With every invention comes positives and negatives. Some of the advantages that cell phones provide is that testing is a fast and easy way of communication, texting and have social media all on your phone can always keep you updated and social with your friends, and people always have all of their personal information at one touch and carriesRead MoreThe Effects Of Idevices Overuse On The Physiology, Psychology, And Safety Of People951 Words   |  4 Pageshumanity.† (Albert Einstein). In recent times, with the proliferation of cell phones and intelligent devices, there is a general concern for the impact the use of these devices causes with users. The exc essive use of cell-phones, iPhone and iPod devices is becoming one of the major sociological problems people face, which has many effects on the physiology, psychology, and safety of people. Today drivers increasingly use their cell phones and intelligent devices to send messages, access the internet, orRead MoreThe Importance Of Cell Phones And Driving1053 Words   |  5 Pagesthe use of cell phones that they are no more conscious of what is going on around them. â€Å"Studies found out that more than 90 percent of students admit to using their devices for non-class activities during class times.† During class hours, students are busy texting on their phones while the class is going on. This has led to lack of concentration towards students therefore leading to poor academic performance. Also, â€Å"Sexting†- the act of sending or receiving explicit pictures by cell phones is more

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Bonuses Can Backfire - 1436 Words

Case Incident 3 Bonuses Can BackFire. Question 1 In a competitive business climate, more business owners are looking at improvements in quality while reducing costs. Meanwhile, a strong economy has resulted in a tight job market. So while small businesses need to get more from their employees, their employees are looking for more out of them. Employee reward and recognition programs are one method of motivating employees to change work habits and key behaviors to benefit a small business. Although these terms are often used interchangeably, reward and recognition systems should be considered separately. Employee reward systems refer to programs set up by a company to reward performance and motivate employees on individual and/or group†¦show more content†¦Likewise, if quality is an important issue for an entrepreneur, the reward system that he or she designs should not emphasize rewarding the quantity of work accomplished by a business unit. Case Discussion 4 Question 1 * Relax – People will sense your genuineness and casualness, and theyll respond accordingly. Stiff, formal conversation will probably lead to equally rigid responses. * Listen and observe more than you talk – Use active listening with your staff. When people feel youre hearing them, youll probably seem more sincere. Read some pointers on active listening. * Ask for feedback and ideas – Let everyone know that you want ideas to make things better. As the boss, people may think that your opinions and ideas are right. So hold back from saying what you think – the goal is to see what others have to say. * Wander around equally – Dont spend more time in one department or section than another. And dont always talk to the same people or to people with certain ranks. You want to be approachable to everyone, regardless of job title or position. * Use the time for spontaneous recognition – If you see something good, compliment the person. Thi s is a perfect way to show your gratitude. * Hold meetings out and about – Instead of having all your meetings in the boardroom or your office, meet with people in their work areasShow MoreRelatedHow Do Corporations Achieve Effective Management?1134 Words   |  5 Pagesphysiological needs of its employees by setting an average salary of $108,483, which basically can ensure survival† (Management). Furthermore, Apple provides â€Å"a wide range of applications to protect the safety needs of workers, such as the development of health and safety standards, training more employees to identify hazards, providing safety equipment or offering subsidies and bonuses† (Ibid). From this it can be seen that Apple applies extrinsic motivational methods to motivate its staff by offeringRead MoreAnalysis Of Elizabeth Grammar On Job Redesign1064 Words   |  5 Pagescorrect unnecessary steps, and consequently make his job more efficient and effective. This tool helps as a moti vator that leads to higher employee satisfaction since the subject feels more in control of his job. Nevertheless, job enrichment can also backfire because employees will not see the correlation between earning more duties, and not earning more money (Carpenter, M., Taylor, B., Erdogan, B., 2009). In Layman’s case study, the job enrichment principles are present first in recognizing thatRead MoreMotivational Methods1155 Words   |  5 Pagesworkplace so it would be great to implement those goals into the workplace. To make these goals a reality the employer or leader of the team can offer incentives such as bonuses or special lunches. In order to build the team successfully proper leadership is important; however the team members should still have some sort of independence so that the team can operate effectively on its own. According to, there are 12 Cs for team building; one of the twelve C’s is cultureRead MoreEssay about A Role of Ethics and Social Responsibilities in Management.1153 Words   |  5 PagesA Role of Ethics and Social Responsibilities in Management. Ethics can be defined as a process of evaluating actions according to moral principal of values(A.Alhemoud). Throughout the centuries people were trying to choose between profit and moral. Perhaps, some of them obtain both, but every time it could have roused ethical issues. Those issues concern fairness, justice, rightness or wrongness; as a result it can only be resolved according to ethical standards. Setting the ethical standardsRead MoreThe Average Cost Of Tuition1730 Words   |  7 Pagesthe institution s main website and magazine. More than three quarters are also responsible for advertising, market research, video production, and student recruitment communications† (Goldsmith). It is believed that the amount spent on advertising can forecast a rise in tuition. â€Å"Some experts on the economics of higher education also warn that marketing contributes to the continuing rise in college costs†¦colleges that spend more money on marketing are building in a layer of cost that would not otherwiseRead MoreApplication Of Game Thinking On Non Game Contexts1494 Words   |  6 Pagesloyalty? And how can we use it retain more customers? Why Gamify Customer Retention? Gamification is the â€Å"application of game-thinking in non-game contexts.† We simply borrow the mechanics of traditional games and apply them to uncommon concepts, like customer retention. Acquiring new customers is expensive. So, reducing customer churn can greatly impact your company’s financial health. A study in the Harvard Business Review noted that increasing customer retention by 5% can generate a 25%-95%Read MoreEssay on Student: Woodrow Wilson and Federal Government Jobs1461 Words   |  6 PagesPresident Garfield’s assassination? (One point) Pendleton Act, which meant that the federal government jobs were to be given based on superiority and throughout examination. What was meant by â€Å"Rum, Romanism and Rebellion†? Why did this comment backfire on Republicans? (Three Points) comment made by Samuel Burchard, a protestant minister, that the Democratic part was Rum,Romanism and rebellion. This comment singled out mostly Irish Catholic men and created a stereotype and this pissed off the CatholicRead MoreHow Bad Is Favoritism in the Workplace?1809 Words   |  7 Pagesharmony is endangered and team work is practically impossible. Worse, your worry that such preferential treatment of some co-workers may even translate to higher pay, bonuses and better career opportunities, may not be misplaced. By not treating everyone equally, a manager is fostering a sense of resentment and separation that can de-motivate employees and damage team unity. Also, by focusing attention on particular employees, it is easy to overlook growth opportunities and unique skill sets offeredRead MoreWill an Acquisition Help or Hinder Your Business? Essay1748 Words   |  7 Pagesprofitability of your business overnight. It might allow you to take advantage of new economies of scale , or move into new areas. You might be able to acquire a bigger and better customer base, or strengthen your management team. But an acquisition can also bring problems, draining financial and management resources from your original business. You need to work out whether the acquisition will add value to your business, after making realistic allowances for all the hidden costs. To be successfulRead MorePerformance-Related Pay Essay examples1993 Words   |  8 Pagesindividuals which are also in line with organisational goals to make sure incentive plans work effectively. Numerous researches have been conducted regarding the issue of the effectiveness of incentive plans. Some management experts suggested that incentives can be a powerful tool to motivate employees (Bennett, 1993) and Vroom’s (1964) expectancy theory indicated that pay for performance provides a direct and explicit link between performance and outcome, which fixed salary compensation does not. However,

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Business Letters Free Essays

A business letter is more formal than a personal letter. It should have a margin of at least one inch on all four edges. It is always written on 8 ½Ã¢â‚¬ x11†³ (or metric equivalent) unlined stationery. We will write a custom essay sample on Business Letters or any similar topic only for you Order Now There are six parts to a business letter. 1. The Heading. This contains the return address (usually two or three lines) with the date on the last line. Sometimes it may be necessary to include a line after the address and before the date for a phone number, fax number, E-mail address, or something similar. Often a line is skipped between the address and date.   That should always be done if the heading is next to the left margin. It is not necessary to type the return address if you are using stationery with the return address already imprinted. Always include the date. 2. The Inside Address. This is the address you are sending your letter to. Make it as complete as possible. Include titles and names if you know them. This is always on the left margin. If an 8 ½Ã¢â‚¬  x 11†³ paper is folded in thirds to fit in a standard 9†³ business envelope, the inside address can appear through the window in the envelope. An inside address also helps the recipient route the letter properly and can help should the envelope be damaged and the address become unreadable. Skip a line after the heading before the inside address. Skip another line after the inside address before the greeting. 3. The Greeting. Also called the salutation. The greeting in a business letter is always formal. It normally begins with the word â€Å"Dear† and always includes the person’s last name. It normally has a title. Use a first name only if the title is unclear–for example, you are writing to someone named â€Å"Leslie,† but do not know whether the person is male or female. For more on the form of titles, see Titles with Names. The greeting in a business letter always ends in a colon. (You know you are in trouble if you get a letter from a boyfriend or girlfriend and the greeting ends in a colon–it is not going to be friendly.) 4. The Body. The body is written as text. A business letter is never hand written. Depending on the letter style you choose, paragraphs may be indented. Regardless of format, skip a line between paragraphs. Skip a line between the greeting and the body. Skip a line between the body and the close. 5. The Complimentary Close. This short, polite closing ends with a comma. It is either at the left margin or its left edge is in the center,  depending on the Business Letter Style that you use. It begins at the same column the heading does. The block style is becoming more widely used because there is no indenting to bother with in the whole letter. 6. The Signature Line. Skip two lines (unless you have unusually wide or narrow lines) and type out the name to be signed. This customarily includes a middle initial, but does not have to. Women may indicate how they wish to be addressed by placing Miss, Mrs., Ms. or similar title in parentheses before their name. The signature line may include a second line for a title, if appropriate. The term â€Å"By direction† in the second line means that a superior is authorizing the signer. The signature should start directly above the first letter of the signature line in the space between the close and the signature line. Use blue or black ink. Business letters should not contain postscripts. A business letter is a formal communication from an organization to its customers, the general public for their information, another Company or the Authorities. It is often written in a standard format, and in formal language, compared to a private letter between two people who are well known to each other. Optional parts of a business letter Enclosure: The meaning of enclosure is to attach some documents with the letter. Enclosures are related documents sent with a letter such as; bills, cheques, quotations, brochures, price-lists etc. which have been mentioned in the letter and are sent as enclosures. The abbreviation of enclosure is ‘Encl.’. it is not a regular part of the layout of a business letter. It is written only when some documents are to be sent with the letter. If there are many enclosures, they are numbered and placed behind the letter in the order of their serial number. It is written at the bottom left of the letter, after the signature. The enclosure line is very useful to the recipient of the letter. By reading the enclosure receiver comes to know that some more documents have been sent with the letter. If you wish the reader to return any of the documents, type/ Write RETURN after the item. Post Script: Postscript (postscriptum) or P.S. means something written outside the main script it is a bit of writing, not more than three lines, added to the letter after the signature and after enclosures. Writing a post script indicates that the writer had forgotten to include something important in the body of the letter or bit of information which is not a part of main message of the letter. It is often written in hand at the time of signing the letter. It is also used to add a friendly personal note to a formal letter. It enables the writer to establish personal contact. Superscription: In commercial correspondence the word superscription refers to anything that is written on the envelope. The meaning of subscription is â€Å"Something written outside†. As it is written outside, it includes the sender’s address and the recipient’s address as well. Sometimes in response to advertisements for jobs, candidates are advised to superscribe their applications. Identification line / Reference Initials: The reference initials refer to the person who has dictated the letter and the person who has typed out the letter. This line appears two spaces below the last line of the signature, on the left hand side of the paper sheet. In modern institutes the signatory may not be the person who has drafted the letter. The letter must have been typed out by the typist and it might be drafted by third person so identification line enables us to know the name of the person who has drafted the letter and the person who has typed out the letter. e.g. KMP/RJS The first initial is that of the person who has drafted the letter and the second one is the person who has typed out the letter. Identification is helpful if any disputes are found. So if there is any typographical error found out then the typist is to be held responsible. If there is any error regarding contain of the letter found out then the person who has drafted is to be held responsible How to cite Business Letters, Papers

Saturday, May 2, 2020

Leadership and Management Business Characteristics

Question: Discuss about the Leadership and Management for Business Characteristics. Answer: Week 2 - BSBLDR501 Develop and use emotional intelligence It began and became popular during the year 1995. He defined Emotional Intelligence as the idea of using the best characteristics, factors, values and skills as well as knowledge to enhance business performance and especially management (O'Boyle et al 2011). His EI model was called the Mixed Model whereby he came up with five main components which are: Self-regulation, internal motivation, social skills and empathy. Furthermore, Daniel decided to accompany every EI component to an employees emotional competence which is naturally possessed (Joseph et al, 2010). Apart from coming up with the model, he also came up with two of his own measuring tools which are: Emotional Competency Inventory (ECI) or the Emotional Social Competency Inventory (ESCI) and the Emotional Intelligence Appraisal (Joseph et al, 2006). Task 2: Personality Based Emotional Intelligence Test (MEIT) (5 marks) From the results of the test, there are four EI Descriptors i.e. they are: Self-awareness which seems to be the most important of them all whereby I scored 7 points. This means knowing your own personality more than anybody else and especially emotionally. Self-management which comprises of self-control, transparency and adaptability. For this I scored 8 points. Social awareness which comprises of empathy, organizational awareness and service orientation whereby I score 9 points. Relationship management that involves things that are related to the external environment or the outside of ones personality where I scored 5 points. Week 3 3: Emotional Intelligence Case Study (5 marks) 1.The employees are showing the emotional stress of losing their values or even skills and losing their jobs in case the bank business operations are changed by Mark. 2.Emotionally effective people are the people who are productive or efficient even with their emotions being put on the line. They value their business goals and objectives more than their personal emotional feelings and disturbances. 3. If I were Mark I would not try to change the banking operations so very fast before I get to understand the previous leadership skill and effects to the banking performance and to employees EI. I would also make sure that all the employees are in line, participating and in agreement especially when it comes to the business changing its emotional intelligence. Any business management needs this group of people because they are most likely going to achieve in or on time and the chances of them achieving the set goals and objectives are very high. The reason is because these are people are more focused towards the businesss goals than anything else. Max would have drafted a memo for each employee or for each banking department to announce the meeting place, time and the length of time it would take. However, he would also have communicates much earlier accompanied by its agendas so that the employees can prepare for it psychologically and physically too. By doing this he would have given time to think about the meetings agenda and also participate in the decision making and give their ideas and views. Week 4 4: Develop a workplace procedure for any one of the following organization. Use a Minimum of 8 bullet points to write the procedure. (10 marks) These include the rules and policies that may be involved in retail store that deals with clothing. Greeting customers and giving the details of the products, prices, features, benefits and the store as a whole. Assembling the cloths inside the store during closing hours (those that were in the display) and taking out for display during opening hours. Maintaining the payments records. Maintaining the clothing inventory. Being aware of the customers actions while in the store. Working with computers and other electronic machines. Ensuring that the store is safe done especially by store security guards. Keeping the store clean, arranged and tidy always to attract more customers. Keeping the stores accounts and financial statements correct and updated as expected by the management. Week 5 5: Scenario based case studies on ethical values and cultural diversity. (10 marks) 1.As an employee, I would go for the game because it was simply an offer that I did not ask for. For instance, I may or may not have done something for the private organization but because it is an offer and not a gift, reward, payment for or bribe then I would join them. However, if it is negatively related to my current organization or job or if the offer comes with any ties and conditions besides just watching the game then I would not take the offer. Furthermore, I would try to my best capability not to combine my personal issues and enjoyment together with my professional responsibilities and duties. Therefore if the offer seems casual then it will remain casual and if professional and independent from my current job or organization then I would take the offer. 2.If I were the manager to these employees, I would make sure that they are able to keep their personal enjoyment aside from their professional responsibilities. In addition to that I would ensure that if the game is to be watched for the benefit of the organization then that is done but if it is for personal importance and benefits then there no organizational funds that are to be used. Also, I would ensure that the cost of the game is worth the spending and not spent in an extravagant manner. Section 2 1.The issue is that the organization does not seem to higher employees from different cultures like the Indians. Also when it comes to the organizational parties, the foods for the minority cultures are not available. 2.If I were the organization manager I would make sure that all cultures from all over the country are represented and respected as they are. In addition to that I would make sure that in every traditional organizational party, every cultures traditions are respected and the foods are available. 6: Workplace diversity: Legislation, rules, codes of practices and business policies. 1.Direct Discrimination-Not allowing Africans to invest in a European Investment Organization Indirect Discrimination-Putting up tough laws that will discourage Africans from investing in a European Investment Organization. 2.Australian Laws Racial Discrimination Act of 1975 Sex Discrimination Act of 1984 Australian Human Rights Commission of 1986 Australian Capital Territory Act- Discrimination Act of 1991 Disability Discrimination Act of 1992 Fair Work Act of 2009 3.I would ensure that all those laws are adhered to by all the employees and especially the management as a whole. Week 6 7: Case Study: Performance plan and KPIs to improve team performance. (10 marks) 1.Document performance issues or the concern itself- This generally involves keeping a clear and detailed record of the employees performance (Adan et all, 2011). This will help the supervisor to monitor, evaluate and analyze the areas that need some improvement. Develop an action plan-This includes coming up with the exact schedule in terms of time, goals and objectives among other needs to be able to implement the performance action (McCutcheon, et all, 1993). Review the performance plan-This should be where the supervisor or employees themselves have a look and read the details of the performance plan together with the manager for him or her to verify its effectiveness and efficiency to the organizations goals and objectives. Schedule a meeting with the employee-The supervisor should set a meeting to give, give a hint and coach the employee in question (Ali, 2013). Do some follow-ups-This is whereby the supervisor makes frequent visits to the employee to check on the progress and proceeds of the plan (Voss et all, 2002). By doing this they will be able to correct them whenever they wrong as early as possible so that they do not mess anything up anymore and if they do it so that it can be meaningless (Skokan et all, 2013). PIP Conclusion- whereby the employee chooses either to rectify or not to rectify their mistakes or performances. Therefore, if an employee does not correct his or her performances then they are likely to get worse and therefore loss to the whole organization (Payangan et all, 2016). Therefore, when an organization employees undergo the above process, they are most likely going to improve or even be better and therefore will retain their old jobs. 2.Key Performance Indicators for a call center Call handling time First call resolution Transfer rate Time to answer Abandon time Idle time Hold time 3.I would ensure that the inputs and the directors are completely independent from each other i.e. none that relies on the other. Also I would ensure that there is perfect trust between the management, input producers and the directors to enable good and smooth operations. Task 8: Case Study: Supporting team performance (5 marks) 1.Groups that are well talented perform less than those that are less talented because of the pressure and desire for each of them to implement their own idea and skill in the group activity rather than coming together as one and agreeing on just one thing. 2.Group Apollo believed that they were the best and could do better on their own without the help of the others. Also they were so confident with themselves, their ideas and views and knew that they were more talented than the others. 3.Manchester United Football Team 4.If I were the coach for Manchester United Team, I would ensure that all the team members are well aware of the overall goals and objectives of the team and are focused and working towards achieving them. I would help them accept each others ideas and opinions on different issues and know that they are all matter when making the teams decisions. References O'Boyle, E. H., Humphrey, R. H., Pollack, J. M., Hawver, T. H., Story, P. A. (2011). The relation between emotional intelligence and job performance: A meta?analysis.Journal of Organizational Behavior,32(5), 788-818. Joseph, D. L., Newman, D. A. (2010). Emotional intelligence: an integrative meta-analysis and cascading model.Journal of Applied Psychology,95(1), 54. Ali, A. (2013). How to differentiate between Leadershipand ManagementFunction in Organization: A Review of Scholarly Thoughts.International Journal of Economics Business and Management Studies,2(1), 38-44. McCutcheon, D. M., Meredith, J. R. (1993). Conducting case study research in operations management.Journal of Operations M, 11(3), 239-256. Adan, I., Bekkers, J., Dellaert, N., Jeunet, J., Vissers, J. (2011). Improving operational effectiveness of tactical master plans for emergency and elective patients under stochastic demand and capacitated resources.European Journal of Operational Research,213(1), 290-308. anagement, 11(3), 239-256. Skokan, K., Pawliczek, A., Piszczur, R. (2013). Strategic planning and business performance of micro, small and medium-sized enterprises.Journal of Competitiveness,5(4). Payangan, O. R., Taba, M. I., Pabo, M. I. (2016). Factors Affecting the Business Performance of the Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises in Creative Economic Sector in Makassar, Indonesia. Voss, C., Tsikriktsis, N., Frohlich, M. (2002). Case research in operations management.International journal of operations production management, 22(2), 195-219.

Tuesday, March 24, 2020

Why Abortion Is Immoral An Argumentative Analysis Essay Example

Why Abortion Is Immoral: An Argumentative Analysis Essay The argument on the immorality of abortion is a long standing philosophical discourse which opens itself to numerous discussions or even attacks. That the pro-choice and anti-abortionists stances stand or fail is based on the strength or weakness of the other’s claim against the other and vice versa. The morality or immorality of abortion, however, leaves an open question which also leaves the partisans reflecting on whether or not there can be a clear and evident claim of its morality or immorality, wrongness or otherwise. Don Marquis’ â€Å"Why Abortion is Immoral†(1989) is an argumentative essay that attempts to dissect the assumptions for and against abortion with the end view of presenting an alternative proposition that generally sets up a discussion that abortion is seriously immoral. This essay seeks to further dissect Marquis’ work and critically analyze his propositions and arguments to present its successes and failures in defending its own thesis. Conversely, this essay does not seek to argue on whether abortion is right or wrong, but rather, seeks to analyze the arguments of Marquis on the immorality of abortion. Although Marquis’ arguments seem generally sound and plausible, it admits of some inconsistencies and weaknesses which this essay seeks to address in the hope of suggesting possible enhancements in his discourse. Marquis’ Propositions and Arguments Marquis’ essay sets out an argument that â€Å"purports to show, as well as any argument in ethics can show, that abortion is, except possibly in rare cases, seriously immoral, that it is in the same moral category as killing an innocent adult human being.†(p. 183). To do this, he sets up analyses of numerous arguments on the wrongness or soundness of abortion. First, he analyzed the standard anti-abortion and pro-choice arguments. Then, he presented arguments on the ethics or morality of killing to establish the wrongness of killing and thereafter derive his justification for the immorality of abortion. We will write a custom essay sample on Why Abortion Is Immoral: An Argumentative Analysis specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Why Abortion Is Immoral: An Argumentative Analysis specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Why Abortion Is Immoral: An Argumentative Analysis specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer To Marquis, the anti-abortionists’ and the pro-choice’s claims stand on similar strengths and suffers from similar weaknesses. Anti-abortionists argue that life is present from the moment of conception while pro-choice partisans argue that fetuses are not persons. The anti-abortionists stand, according to him tends to be too broad in scope such that even fetuses at the early stage of pregnancy will fall under this category. The pro-choice argument, on the other hand, tends to adapt an argument that is too limited such that fetuses shall not fall under it. In fine, the pro-choice adapts the person account. If even fetus, however, are to be considered persons, it may be problematic to characterize them as such because a ‘person’ typically is defined in terms of psychological characteristics which the fetus do not have as of yet. On the other hand, if fetuses are to be considered human beings, there is a need to identify if it shall be categorized as biologica l or moral. If biological, the challenge is explaining why biological category should make a moral difference if it is moral. If this is the case, then the anti-abortionist cannot use the argument that fetuses are human beings because this morality is what is needed to be proved. Marquis claims, however, that â€Å"a pro-choice strategy that extends the definition of ‘person’ to infants or even to young children seems just as arbitrary as an anti-abortion strategy that extends the definition of a ‘human being’ to fetuses.†   Because of this existing and seemingly irresolvable standoff, Marquis suggested a more theoretical account on the wrongness of killing to resolve the abortion controversy. Marquis presented a number of arguments why killing is wrong. He explained the brutalization concept of killing which makes it wrong, that is, it brutalizes the victim and is focused not on the loss brought to the victim’s friends or relatives. Under this premise, killing is wrong because it inflicts one of the greatest possible losses on the victim—the loss to him of all those activities, projects, experiences and enjoyments which could have otherwise constituted the victim’s future personal life. There, however, should be value on these activities or personal future life. Marquis then resorts to explaining the wrongness in terms of the natural property account. The point of analysis according to him is to establish which natural property ultimately explains the wrongness of killing given that it is wrong. Thus, what makes killing a particular human wrong is what it does to that particular human. Here, he derives the future-like-ours account to state that killing is wrong. Under this account, it is required that there be a perceived future for the being, then a value for that future, and a perceived valuer, otherwise, it defeats the purpose of the argument. The fetus may not be able to value his future or his own life, but some other may value it for him just as in the case of some suicidal youth, or the severely unconscious. He then makes reference to the discontinuation account. Based on this, what makes killing wrong is the discontinuation of the experience of living and the wish for valuable experience to continue. Conversely, continued existence, requires the desire to continue his existence. Absence of this desire to continue leaves another question. The desire account requires that there be a capacity to desire, otherwise, there can be no perceived value of the future (consider mentally ill, or the unconscious who do not have the capacity to desire). The loss of the value of the future of the victim, however, is not supported by the biological category of the wrongness of killing. It also neglects the idea that they may be some other creatures who may also have futures and the question is what it is in their futures that makes it wrong to be taken away. Finally, it discounts the possible future of pain that may be avoided by the severely ill who may opt for active euthanasia instead. To derive his argument that abortion is seriously wrong, he needed to base his argument not on the personhood but on the account that the concept of ‘person’ is used to state the conclusion of the analysis rather than to generate the argument of the analysis. He suggests to state the argument by â€Å"starting the analysis in terms of the value of the human future, conclude that abortion is, except perhaps in rare circumstances, seriously morally wrong, infer that fetuses have the right to life and then call fetuses ‘persons’ as a result of their having the right to life.†(p.192) Despite these accounts for the wrongness of killing, these alternative general accounts still unsuccessfully or inadequately got around the anti-abortion consequences of the value of a future-like-ours argument. Marquis’ suggestion was to limit the scope of the value of a future-like-ours argument by arguing that fetuses lack a property that is essential for the value of a future-like-ours argument to apply to them. He counter argues, however, that his proposition stands because it may not be necessary that it be the fetus who values his life but it may be some other person. Another argument presented is whether or not an embryo or fetus may be victimized. He cites Bassen who says that embryos lack mentation that establishes the reason why fetuses and embryos cannot be victims and therefore cannot be the basis for the wrongness of abortion. Marquis overturns this by noting that Bassen’s examples and discussions eventually lead to deprivation of a value of a future-like-ours and not mentation as the basis of the victimization. Marquis, argues, that in fact, â€Å"embryos can be victims: when their lives are deliberately terminated, they are deprived of their futures of value, their prospects† and this fact makes them victims because it directly wrongs them. Despite his proposition that majority of deliberate abortions are seriously immoral, Marquis does not consider contraception as wrong. To him, nothing at all is denied such a future by contraception because in his analysis, there is in fact no subject of harm. Accordingly, Marquis claim that â€Å"the immorality of contraception is not entailed by the loss of the a future-like-ours argument simply because there is no nonarbitrary identifiable   subject of the loss in the case of contraception.†(p.202) Finally, Marquis was able to propose an alternative generalization on the immorality of abortion. His purpose of setting out an argument for the serious presumptive wrongness of abortion based on the assumption that the moral permissibility of abortion stands or falls on the moral status of the fetus was successfully laid out. Strengths and Weakness of Marquis’ Arguments Marquis’ essay is quite impressive in that it was able to deliver a deliberate and provocative analysis of existing arguments on abortion. In order to derive his position, he in fact delved into numerous philosophical accounts and went into categorically offering the premises, the arguments and even the possible counter-arguments for and against the wrongness of abortion. His persuasive style of writing is engaging in that he makes reference to his readers in attempting to appeal both to their pathos and logos. His use of â€Å"us† and â€Å"or you, reader† (as in pages 190 and 193) repeatedly in the text on the subject of killing is an effective tool in involving the readers in the active thought process. A closer analysis of his discussion, however, reveals some weaknesses. It is worthy of note that his thesis is not capable of standing on its own in that its soundness rests to some extent on the unsoundness of the arguments on which it was based or grounded.   Thus, its strength lies in the weakness of other arguments, and its full understanding is reliant upon the understanding of the consequences of other premises and argument. In the process, Marquis was successful in delivering his points. He presented his contemporaries arguments along with their weaknesses, delivered his personal propositions and even offered the possible attacks on his arguments. He offered strategies on dismantling standoffs or of avoiding certain consequences by limiting the scope of specific arguments. In the end, however, he left the readers to fill in the gaps and knit together his arguments rather than offering them a definite suggestion. How and why his conclusions are derived at is left to the discretion and understanding of the readers of how he presented his ideas. In the text, one may notice that he explicitly excluded or tried to avoid certain issues. For example, he neglected issues of great importance to a complete ethics of abortion (p. 183) and   what it is about our future or the future of other adult human beings which makes it wrong to kill us (p.191).   In order to stress his conclusion, he deliberately left out some issues and focused on some other. That he presented these issues by excluding them from his analysis, however, brought more questions unanswered and left his readers in quandary on how his argument could have been arrived at if the issues he avoided had been considered in the analysis. What could have happened to his arguments if these issues were in fact discussed and included? Could they have made his argument weak or illogical? Or could they have strengthened his argument? Probably not. Consequently, this further created gaps in the full understanding of the text. The author seems to be in the habit of opening a lo t of discussions but leaves them hanging. Although he may have done this on purpose so as to limit his discourse, the resultant is a less than likely confusion or misconception. Note that in the previous section of this essay, Marquis discussed and established the wrongness of killing to a great extent then diverted to his initial thesis on the serious immorality of abortion as if they are one in the same thing. He apparently seems to claim that wrong is equivalent to immoral. What he failed to do, however, is to establish what makes killing immoral to surmount it to the level that would make abortion seriously immoral in general. To him, the answer may have been obvious, but to logically think about it, he could have presented the morality issues of killing as it related to the wrongness of killing first then established the serious immorality of abortion. Marquis’ style is a bit cyclic in that he jumps from one concept to another and then goes back to a previous concept so as to drive at his comparisons of theories and propositions. It was advantageous in that it opens the readers to a lot logical and illogical possibility in trying to assess his points. This style, however, requires the reader to go over and over the previous discussions and arguments to refresh his memory. Otherwise, readers find it difficult to draw connections between and among his propositions. In short, his discourse is quite difficult to contextualize in relation to other concepts in one reading. The author proposes in the conclusion that a fetus possesses a property, the possession of which in adult human beings is sufficient to make killing an adult human being wrong, thus, abortion is wrong, but failed to discuss in more detail what this property of a fetus is all about as compared to the property of an adult human being who have a valuable future ahead. In the beginning of the essay, it seems that the thesis is that it purports to show that abortion is seriously immoral and that it is in the same moral category as killing an innocent adult human being. At the end of the essay, however, he says that â€Å"the thesis of this essay is that the problem of the ethics of abortion, so understood, is solvable.† They do not seem to clearly jive at all, or at least clearly define what was in the entire text of the discussion. In fact, his closing left another question hanging. Solvable in what sense, then? Does the author mean to say that his generalization that abortion is seriously immoral has solved the problem of the ethics of abortions? There is a strong reason to disagree. In fact, his jumping from his initial thesis that abortion in general is seriously immoral was not clearly sustained in the entire text when he eventually referred to it as a disputable presumption later in the discussion. He explicitly claimed that â€Å"abortion is presumptively seriously wrong, where the presumption is very strong—as strong as the presumption that killing another   adult human being is strong†(p.194). A counter argument, however, that he failed to recognize, or probably avoided, is the issue of what it is in the nature of a thing that could break this strong presumption that killing an adult human being is wrong that could also be made applicable to a fetus which could probably support or dismantle the argument that abortion is presumptively very seriously wrong. How similarly (or differently) situated are adults and fetuses to have (or not have) this strong presumption? In sum, Marquis’ essay is impressive in that it was able to deliver a highly critical analysis and argumentation on the wrongness of abortion. That a few weaknesses was identified in this analysis of his paper, however, does not serve to mitigate or totally overturn his arguments, but merely provided for an alternative suggestion in improving his arguments.

Friday, March 6, 2020

Value Chain Analysis for Amazon

Value Chain Analysis for Amazon Introduction From its launch in 1995, Amazon has grown to become the main choice for online shoppers across the world based on its array of quality products. Amazon Company’s success has been impressive, thanks to the company’s efforts to address its core competencies.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Value Chain Analysis for Amazon specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Using VRIO analysis, this paper discusses research and development, organization culture, customer relations, incumbent advantages, and branding as Amazon Company’s key competencies. Amazon’s Core Competencies The Research and Development (RD) has initiated and executed ideas such as Listmania and Kindle, which have proved valuable to the company. These ideas have attracted many consumers since they allow them to choose the products they find most valuable. Nonetheless, these ideas are not rare since Amazon’s competitors have parallel technologies. For instance, the Noble Company has a feature that enables clients to share opinions on products they have searched or bought. These products are expensive to imitate because of the corresponding technological dexterity and high costs to develop features such as Kindle. Moreover, these features are appropriate for the success of the organization since the efforts by the RD department are met to enhance consumer shopping experience (Mennen 45). As Hill and Gareth confirm, Amazon has established an organizational culture whereby ideals such as prudence and leadership are given top priority (56). This organizational norm is dear to the firm since it keeps it at the forefront of other companies in the industry in terms of efficient exploitation of resources and the introduction of changes in the company. However, this culture is not rare since most organizations encourage frugality and good leadership.Advertising Looking for report on business econom ics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Moreover, it is not difficult to imitate it since its implementation is inexpensive and publicly available in Amazon’s website. This organization culture that promotes prudence and leadership is relevant for the organization since it attracts and retains customers. It improves consumer experience, thus granting the company advantage over its competitors (Amazon 12). Harris says that the company recognizes that maintaining good customer relations is crucial to its prosperity (10). The company finds it valuable to allow shoppers to review the products to attract other potential customers. However, this strategy is not rare since most companies have similar tendencies of allowing their customers to share opinions on their (companies) products. Furthermore, this idea is not technical to imitate since firms should only comprehend the anticipations of their clients and strive to satisfy them. Maintaining a good rapport with customers is appropriate for the organization, as it helps to control the online commercial market (Mennen 67). Amazon joined the online shopping business at time when there were few online users or online shopping firms. Being the first in the industry has been of great value, as it has enjoyed several incumbent advantages such as the economies of scale of the business. This opportunity is a rare since there can only be one first-enterer. Additionally, it is hard to mimic incumbent companies in other industries that strive to offer similar services because of competition. The benefits of the first entry are appropriate for the organization they limit the chances of rivals surpassing the Amazon in the industry (Harris 10). The brand of the company, which is associated with one of the greatest rivers, is of utmost value to the company since it has linked it to greatness by attracting many online shoppers. Its branding is rare since most clients o nly connect the name to the company. Moreover, it is also not a viable duplicate the brand. Using Amazon as the company’s name makes the organization well known and hence successful.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Value Chain Analysis for Amazon specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion In the past two decades, Amazon has consistently grown to become the first choice for online shoppers. It has been attentive to customers’ needs following its provision of a platform that allows them to review their products, thus maintaining a good rapport with shoppers. If Amazon maintains these prudent strategies, it will continue to control the online shopping industry. Amazon. 2013 Annual Report, 2013. Web. Harris, Jim. â€Å"Amazons runaway success.† Backbone 1.1(2012): 10. Print. Hill, Charles, and Jones Gareth. Essentials of Strat egic Management. Ohio, OH: Cengage, 2011. Print. Mennen, Miriam. Global Corporate Strategy A Critical Analysis and Evaluation of Germany: GRIN Verlag, 2010. Print.

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Canada-china computer crisis josephj.distefano Case Study

Canada-china computer crisis josephj.distefano - Case Study Example The team was to develop a program that had to be launched at a trade fair. The program was going on well but Yulan was the only person who had worked on the actual coding of the program while Paul Horn and other members had provided support in the form of briefings, some writing work and supplies. Interestingly at the eleventh hour, Yulan chooses to change the program and removes the traces of original work completely. She tells Horn that she had done this to make sure that she was given proper credit for her work. Yulan Sun was insistent that her work and individual contribution be acknowledged explicitly since she had worked long hours all by herself in the completion of the program. Paul Horn on the other hand found this rather absurd and reminded Yulan rather cogently that he and his team had done a lot of work on the project and thus securing individual credit for work was a ridiculous demand. In case Yulan Sun refuses to provide the code of the program, the project would be a disaster. The deadline would be over and the firm will not be able to participate in the trade fair where the program was scheduled for launch. Yulan Sun was on the other hand was adamant that it was her program and she could do whatever she chose to with the program. She is willing to provide the code if her individual work is acknowledged and if credit was given to her in explicit terms. Yulan had no issues with the team receiving bonuses or some credit but she wanted the program to remain in her name. This was unacceptable to Paul Horn who felt that it was a team effort and would thus be acknowledged in the same way. Analysis: This case has often been analyzed in the collectivism/individualism framework, which obviously doesn't apply here. Yulan coming from a culture that respects collectivism is looking for individual acknowledgement while Paul Horn born into a individualistic culture recognizes team effort. This is then a paradoxical situation. Studying the case closely, we realize that the standoff is grounded in differing definitions of teamwork and team ethics that exist in two different cultures. For Paul Horn who is a typically modern Canadian, teamwork means every person playing the role assigned to them and all must seek the same result. They must not get into each other's way but instead concentrate on their part in the project and bring the project to fruition. Yulan Sun on the other hand feels that teamwork is all about helping out each other. She believes that the main objective of a team is to assist each other. However when she came to Canada she realized that no one actually worked this way rather everyone tried to stay out of each other's work and path. The Canadians felt this was the right way of doing teamwork while Yulan Sun found it against her idea of teamwork and ethics. For this reason, Yulan demanded that her work be acknowledged separately because from where she stood, she couldn't see anyone doing any work on the project. Others had not assisted her when she stayed up all night to complete her task. Paul Horn feels that they had played their part in the project effectively. Conclusion: Instead of focusing on collectivism and individualism framework, this conflict must be resolved by focusing on the differing definit